During the 1990s, I helped out in the management of this stretch of disused canal – the bit in the borough of Broxtowe but this is the first time I’ve seen it since then. It all looked very familiar, though in those days, I think I knew my odonata better and there was an active, artificial ski-slope nearby, rather than a hilly and botanically diverse piece of former colliery spoil; the canal still holds water (always a difficulty then) and there are lots of aquatic plants to be seen. At least I know them better now, than I did then.

I recalled seeing Arrowhead here, though the ever reliable Dave suggested that Sagittaria sagitifolia was only ever found on the stretch nearer Trowell.

Then I remembered the leaflets that I wrote back then and I found some on a dusty shelf; sure enough there is an ink drawing of Arrowhead in one of the leaflets but it is in the Awsworth and Eastwood edition, and the text relates to the Erewash Canal – in Derbyshire of all places!

I probably knew Branched Bur-reed Sparganium erectum then, but I don’t recall Marsh Woundwort Stachys palustris despite these being quite dominant today, with the latter adding a contrasting colour to the dominant greens.

Branched Bur-reed
Marsh Woundwort

Wood Wednesdays are about botany and we all learned something from our guru, but warmth and water provided other attractions and I was notably deficient in naming them. However perusal of the adequate photos enabled these:

Ruddy Darter

It’s not clear from this image but they definitely had a waist on the abdomen and I don’t think there were any Common Darters present.

Banded Demoiselle

Male Banded Demoiselle are easy but we were a bit mixed up between this and Emerald Damselfy, however the white pterostigma clinches this as a female Calopteryx splendens and the broader wings, clasped whilst perched would give a regular odonatist no problem at all.

Emperor Dragonfly

This one didn’t occur on the canal in the 1990’s; it has moved in since – first to larger bodies of open water and now, to my surprise to sites such as this. I need to spend more time observing these beautiful creatures. All I need is time and sunshine.

Brown Hawker

An easy one; big, brown and the females don’t look too different.

My first Holly Blue of the second generation was the only real notable among the nine species of butterfly that came our way and plants not already mentioned include Greater Spearwort Ranunculus lingua, Water Dock Rumex hydrolapathum, Marsh Bedstraw Galium palustre, Hemp Agrimony Eupatorium cannabinum, Lady Fern Athyrium filix-femina and Sweet Flag Acorus calamus.

Sweet Flag would definitely have gone unnoticed but for Dave’s prior experience and detection of the wrinkly leaves that otherwise looked so much like Branched Bur-reed, it would never have been picked out – at least, not by me. Any doubting Thomas’s were satisfied by the pleasant but seemingly indescribable scent from a crushed leaf.

And finally, the jizz of two sedges:

Juncus acutiflorus
Juncus articulatus

Well, Dave and Rob never looked in the book.



I met up with 8 lepidopterists keen to see what the forest could muster and in general we weren’t disappointed. There were many species that we should have seen but didn’t but this was compensated for by typical views of Purple Hairstreak, a fleeting view of Silver-washed Fritillary and prolonged views of a tatty male Purple Emperor.

Two or three Ravens added to the interest and several people enjoyed the plants too: The ones I pointed out included Hedge Woundwort, Wild Basil, Agrimony, Upright Hedge-parsley, Tor-grass, Perforate St.-John’s-wort and Black Bryony.


Bole with DCW

Bole? “Bole is a village and civil parish in the Bassetlaw district of Nottinghashire…” Population 247 at the last count. We spent the day around Bole Ings (and I kept remembering England winning the cricket world cup the previous day for some reason).

We began the day in the cool of a ‘tall-herb fen’ dominated by Meadowsweet Filipendula ulmaria with splashes of Purple-loosestrife Lythrum salicaria and Reedmace Typha latifolia with Yellow Loosestrife Lysimachia vulgaris a speciality. It was also home to a lot of hungry mosquitoes.

Yellow Loosestrife

And then it was out into the sunny and rather warm, post-industrial land associated with the West Burton power station where Common Centaury and Yellow-wort were present with Juncus compressus in the wetter areas.

Juncus compressus

Dave’s thorough investigation along a drain resulted in a further good selection of aquatics that included Marsh Horsetail Equisetum palustre and Glyceria notata.

All but one of the dozen or so skippers we saw were Essex. I saw one Large and one probable Small.

Essex Skipper

The genus Helophilus and its close relatives are easy to pick out with their striped thorax. This is a male H. pendulus. The generic name is appropriate as they seem to enjoy a spot of sun-bathing, often near water.

Helophilus pendulus

Scarcest plant of the day was Opposite-leaved Pondweed Groenlandia densa which Dave knew was there. No matter where we go in the county, Dave has been before and pretty much knows what we will find. This is an RPR species known from just a couple of localities in Notts in the vicinity of Bole and it is declining nationally due to eutrophication and falling water tables.

Opposite-leaved Pondweed (with Callitriche)



Nottinghamshire is not as big as it once was; boundary changes have annexed bits into neighbouring counties and south of Willoughby, a tongue of land between Kingston Brook and the A46 was once in Nottinghamshire and remains in the vice county of Nottinghamshire aka VC56. For such a small area we managed a decent list which included notables such as Thorn-apple Datura stramonium, Water Forget-me-not Myosotis scorpioides, , Common Hemp-nettle Galeopsis tetrahit, and the alien bramble Rubus laciniatus.

Thread-leaved Water-crowfoot

Thread-leaved Water-crowfoot R. trichophyllus, I learned, has smallish flowers with petals that don’t overlap and has only capillary leaves – so no floating laminar ones. It was in a pond that had several interesting aquatics. including this Jointed Rush Juncus articulatus.

Jointed Rush
Marsh Foxtail

Marsh Foxtail Alopecurus geniculatus is quite common nationally but I don’t seem to come across it very often. It looks rather like Black-grass A. myosuroides but the habitat is quite different and if you search among the stems you will find that they are ‘kneed’. (I recently found some Black-grass in a crack in my yard).

One more grass – they are at their best now –Silver Hair-grass Trisetum flavescens was scattered around the tetrad with this plant in a gutter of the A6006.

Silver Hair-grass

Rarity of the day was an equal first to Dropwort Filipendula vulgaris and Strawberry Clover Trifolium fragiferum but the former was not in flower and its photo turned out to be unexciting so the clover gets the award.

Strawberry Clover

I would have walked straight past it. Dave didn’t though because although he had never walked along Occupation Lane before, his years of experience told him to look out for it. Not just anywhere along it, but in the middle of the rutted track.

We finished the day off with a look along Kingston Brook which is a near to natural a stream here than you are ever likely to find; wending, undercutting the bank, deep and wide in places and narrow enough to step across it in others.



A trek to the far east and mid north of Nottinghamshire and we were accompanied by Mags and Sally who made the day more fun even than usual. With four pairs of eyes one can assume that very little was overlooked but the coverage was not reflected in the species list so it is fair to conclude that SK88B, 5 km south of Gainsborough is species poor.

Star plant was Lady Fern Athyrium filix-femina, but I’d wandered off for a butterfly excursion whilst the others searched a wood, hence I dipped out on that, so the notables for me were a couple of grasses:

Phalaris aquatica

Bulbous Canary-grass Phalaris aquatica has an odd specific name for an arable weed but we found it in what appeared to be a ley of Yorkshire-fog; an oddity of itself.

And, at a couple of locations this rather attractive and distinctive species was found;

Bromus secalinus

Rye Brome Bromus secalinus, has a scattered distribution throughout Nottinghamshire with a minor stronghold in this vicinity.

Well, that’s it for plants; I scored around 170 taxa but Dave may have kept a few more to himself. Luckily it was a warm and sunny day and butterflies were on the wing; 8 species put in an appearance including my first Essex Skipper of the year and a few Painted Ladies represented Sturton le Steeple’s contingency of the current influx. Some had seen better days!

Crane flies seem to be getting my attention lately – perhaps because they are obligingly photogenic. Here is a Nephrotoma flavescens.

Nephrotoma flavescens

Earlier we saw a couple in-cop, so there should be more next year. Shield Bugs too are cropping up regularly and I hadn’t realised that the three pairs of raised ‘lumps’ on the ‘elytra’ (more strictly the hemelytra, because in the heteroptera, the forewings are not fully hardened) is a nymph character.

Pentatoma rufipes

So this is a Forest Bug (or Yellow-legged Shieldbug) nymph – I think final instar – and this is a larva of a Dusky Sallow moth.

Dusky Sallow

I don’t know all these things at a glance you realise. The beauty of digital photography is that I can appear to know things when all I have done is plodded through the literature and the internet for the best part of a day following these outings. It helped to know that lepidoptera have three pairs of true legs and four pairs of prolegs (ruling out sawflies and others) but thereafter it was a thumb through Porter 1997.

And now for some local history. Since very few people visit this part of the world and there is only one house in the entire tetrad (even that appeared to be unoccupied during extension works) you might be interested to know that the Romans built the road and a causeway across the Trent nearby, which King Harold crossed on his way to get featured in the Bayeux Tapestry, William the Conqueror crossed two years later to ravage the Saxons and which enabled Oliver Cromwell to relocate during the battle for Gainsborough.

For around 1,600 years, everybody who was anybody passed along this road but yesterday there were just four botanists, six cyclists and a car.

Even the ‘three-penny bit’ toll house has shut up shop.



A massive crowd turned out for this, the dullest, chilliest, June, Wood Wednesday of my experience. Though not really on a Glastonbury scale this bench got rather crowded and it’s a good job P-Nut had nipped off in search of Upright Brome leaving George and Hal to have a good old natter over an apple and a sandwich.

The Bromopsis erecta was difficult to capture as it wafted about in the stiff breeze and the 4k shooting came into its own.

But a firm grasp on a leaf blade enabled a portrayal of its ‘Camel’s eyelashes’.

Ten of us enjoyed the delights of this old railway complex but I’m afraid the 11th looked a bit lost; India seemed unimpressed by our enthusiasm for grasses and weeds though she would surely have found the floriferous grassland of our lunch break delightful if only the sun had shone. There was Viper’s Bugloss Echium vulgare, Kidney Vetch Anthyllis vulneraria, Quaking-grass Briza media, Betony Betonica officinalis, Common Spotted-orchid Dactylorhiza fuchsii and its hybrid with Southern Marsh-orchid D. praetermissa = Dactylorhiza x grandis.

Dactylorhiza x grandis

With Common Spotted-orchid nearby, the lack of spots on the leaves and the much darker tones to the flowers were evident; the reduced extent of the central lobe on the lower lip ( the labellum) was a decider.

There were tantalising hints that a sun still shone in the heavens and my first Ringlets were having battles with the Meadow Browns at such moments and a Blackneck moth attracted attention.


It has extended its range through the Midlands during the last decade and is often evident in flower-rich grassland; its favoured food-plant is Tufted Vetch Vicia cracca which is also present.

Plant of the day for Dave and for others familiar enough with inland-seaside specialities, was Catapodium marinum – Sea Fern-grass, a road salt opportunist in the gutter of the A610 – look carefully on your next visit to IKEA.

Sea Fern-grass

Another of this ilk was on show at the side of the A52 as we crossed the Wilford-Ruddington road in the slowness of the evening traffic; the most inland Sea Wormwood is doing well where Dave first found it, in similar circumstances last year,



Orchids are showing well now and many of the grasses are letting it all hang out including Arrhenatherum elatius False oat-grass which is the abundant species on our roadside verges. These are already being hacked down before they reach their prime. The delicate beauty of this common grass cannot be appreciated from a car but nature’s perfection is all around us if we care to take the time .

False Oat-grass

A freely growing verge not only allows common grasses to do their stuff but there are many wildflowers tucked away there too and an abundance of invertebrates that are wiped out when the mowers come along. And of course, there are shrews, voles and Harvest Mice in there as well supporting owls, bats and Kestrels.

Some verges, where visibility is an issue, of course need to be maintained but I see our local authority wasting money right, left and centre – destroying nature just as it approaches its best.

Bee Orchid

Bee Orchids are one of the wild flowers that could benefit from better road verge management as it is fighting back and becoming quite an opportunist given the right conditions.

Common Spotted Orchid

Common Spotted Orchid remains generally scarce in the wider countryside but Holme Pierrepont has them scattered around and a less glamorous relative, Common Twayblade, is around too though more difficult to spot.

Common Twayblade

Highlight among the invertebrates was this Painted Lady. I’d heard there were massive numbers of them in North Africa earlier this year, their population boosted by rains, but the anticipated big immigration has not transpired.

Painted Lady



My fourth garden Shoulder-striped Wainscot this morning:

Shoulder-striped Wainscot

And a peculiarity from Tuesday morning’s trap; a Snakefly (Raphidiidae).

a Snakefly – possibly Xanthostigma xanthostigma

They have an elongated prothorax which enables them to raise their head in a snake-like manner. There are four British species but not much help available to tell them apart.

Snakeflies are classed as a true bug (Hemiptera – Homoptera) and closely related to Lacewings and Alderflies in the family Neuroptera. It seems though that Snakeflies are very rarely encountered as the adults spend most of their time in the tree canopy whilst the larvae live under the bark. NBN Atlas has only 286 records of X. xanthostigma nationally whilst Eakring Birds knows of four Nottinghamshire records, the most recent coming from Attenborough NWT.



The strong chilly morning breeze became a welcome zephyr later in the day as a summer’s day made a rare appearance for a plant-filled main course with invertebrates for sides.

We were polishing off SK74D by crossing the river whence we could glimpse Kneeton church where we had meandered on 30th April on our earlier excursion into the tetrad.

Ewan’s Wood with Kneeton church beyond – looking south-east from Ferry Farm

We saw and I photo’d enough stuff (not always successfully!) to cover a week of wanderings and there are a couple of identifications still to be determined so I’m going to have to be selective. Great Yellow-cress Rorippa amphibia and Hemlock Water-dropwort Oenanthe crocata at the edge of the swollen Trent were the first of an array of wetland species that made me realise how poorly I know them – I find them slow to get to grips with because I haven’t targeted aquatic habitats, because they are often out of reach and because they vary even more so than terrestrial plants depending whether they are in deep water, slow-flowing or fast-flowing water, emergent or submerged – or at least many do.

Marsh Yellow-cress

Here’s one from the edge of the sailing lake but there must be about sixteen other aquatics that I would not be able to name spontaneously – including several sedges and rushes. I have left it all rather late in life but I might just manage the local ones before my field days come to an end.

It doesn’t help when I am so easily distracted by invertebrates – and there are so many of these that I will never know them well but this is an easy one, though the markings vary – a Nursery-web Spider, Pisaura mirabilis.

Pisaura mirabilis

The wonderful Musk Thistle is numerous on the Trentside pasture; perhaps because it is readily recognisable as a thistle its splendid appearance is underestimated by growers.

Musk Thistle Carduus nutans

We found a flower-rich meadow that hosted many scarce plants including Pepper-saxifrage Silaum silaus. Notables, not already mentioned included Squirrel-tail Fescue Vulpia bromoides, Water Dock Rumex hydrolapathium, Amphibious Bistort Persicaria amphibia, Stream Water-crowfoot Ranunculus penicillatus, Blue Water-speedwell Veronica anagallis-aquatica, Spiked Sedge Carex spicata, Knotted Clover Trofolium striatum, Greater Bird’s-foot Trefoil Lotus pedunculatus, Little Mouse-ear Cerastium semidecandrum, Fennel Pondweed Potamogeton pectinatus, Common Spotted-orchid Dactyllorhiza fuchsii, Southern Marsh Orchid Dactylorhiza praetermissa, Water Forget-me-not Myosotis scorpiodes, Flowering Rush Butomus umbellatus, Greater Duckweed Spirodella polyrhiza , Rat’s-tail Fescue Vulpia myuros, Yellow-wort Blackstonia perfoliata and Common Centaury Centaurium erythraea.

The full list for the tetrad (SK74D) was an amazing 346 taxa.



After a very wet week, this morning was sunny and cheering. By 8.00 there was a Common Blue in the burial ground meadow and a Hare finding the cover of the growing herbage to it liking.


Although there is some False Oat-grass Arrenhatherum elatius now becoming evident, I’m sure (as I can be for now) that it has reduced dramatically from last year and that Soft Brome Bromus hordeaceus has increased dramatically. There is still plenty of variety including some decent patches of Hay-rattle Rhinanthus minor.


The early brightness soon broke but for a while around noon, there was some break in the cloud and I grabbed the opportunity to do this week’s butterfly transect. It finished in a splashy rain shower and managed one butterfly – a Small White!